Essay

Science Focus 1

 

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Kerry WhalleyGeoff PhillipsGreg RickardStewart MoncktonPeter Roberson

Sydney ,Melbourne,Brisbane,Perthandassociated companies around the world

 

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Pearson Education AustraliaA division of Pearson Australia Group Pty LtdLevel 9, 5 Queens RoadMelbourne 3004www.pearsoned.com.au/schoolsOffices in Sydney, Brisbane and Perth, and associated companiesthroughout the world.Copyright © Pearson Education Australia(a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2004First published 2004Reprinted 2005All rights reserved. Except under the conditions described in theCopyright Act 1968 of Australia and subsequent amendments, nopart of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopy ing, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.Designed by Polar DesignEdited by Kay WatersPrepress work by The Type FactorySet in Melior 10 ptPrinted in ChinaNational Library of AustraliaCataloguing–i n–Publicatio n data:Whalley, Kerry.Science focus 1.For secondary school students.ISBN 0 12 360444 3.1. Science- T extbooks. I. Roberson,Peter. II. Rickard, Greg. III. Title. IV.Title :Science focus one.500

 

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iii

5

Hea t,li ghtandsou nd

112

5.1

Energy 113

5.2

Heat 118

5.3

Light 129

5.4

Sound 137Chapterreview 145

6

Classification

147

6.1

Beingalive 148

6.2

Fromkingdomtospecies 155

6.3

Animalclassification 161

6.4

Plantsandotherkingdoms 171

6.5

Moreonkeys 176Chapterreview 181

7

Forces

182

7.1

Forces:whatarethey? 183

7.2

Balancedandunbalancedforces 188

7.3

Friction: slowing down and gettingmoving 191

7.4

Gravity 196

Science focus:

Flyinghigh 201

7.5

Forcesinwater 204

7.6

Magneticforces 208 Chapterreview 213

8

Earth and space

215

8.1

Thesolarsystem 216

Science focus:

Earlyastronomy 228

8.2

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> TheSun 231

8.3

Earth’ smovementinspace 235

8.4

TheMoon 239 Chapterreview 245

9

Our planet Earth

246

9.1

OurEarth 247

9.2

Rocksandminerals 251

9.3

T ypesofrocks 256

9.4

Weat heringanderosion 264

9.5

Theatmosphere 269

Science focus:

Globalwarming 276

9.6

Weather 279Chapterreview 285 Index 287A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t si vI n t r o d u c t i o nv Verbs viiiC u r r i c u l u mg r i d s1

 1

Being a scientist

2

1.1

S a f e t y — b e f o r ew es t a r t3

1.2

Whatisscience? 6

1.3

Observing 9

1.4

Equipment 12

1.5

Reporting 15

1.6

Measurement 18

1.7

Workingscientifically 24

1.8

UsingaBunsenburner 27 Chapterreview 32

2

Sol ids ,li qui dsand gases

34

2.1

Theparticlemodel 35

2.2

Changesofstate 41

Science focus:

Observationanddiscovery 46

2.3

Expansion 48

2.4

Density 54Chapterreview 60

3

Mixtures and theirseparation

61

3.1

T ypesofmixtures 62

3.2

Separatinginsolublesubstances 69

3.3

Separatingsolublesubstances 74

3.4

Watersupplyandsewage 79 Chapterreview 85

4

Cells

86

4.1

Themicroscope 87

4.2

Plantandanimalcells 94

4.3

Specialisedcells 99

4.4

Groupsofcells 103

Science focus:

Stemcells 108 Chapterreview 111

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